# Division in Haskell

Esperanto · English

March 8, 2017

Last updated: August 5, 2018

While learning about division in Haskell, I realized that the concept is not as trivial as I initially wanted it to be. There are subtle differences between the functions that can easily trip someone who’s not aware of them. `quot`

performs integer division that rounds towards zero. `div`

is like `quot`

, but it rounds below zero—negative infinity. `rem`

returns the remainder of a division. `mod`

, on the other hand, performs modular arithmetic.

In the GHCi interaction below, `quotRem`

returns a tuple of the application of `quot`

and `rem`

to its arguments, while `divMod`

returns a tuple of the application `div`

and `mod`

to its arguments.

```
Prelude> quotRem 13 5
(2,3)
Prelude> quotRem (-13) 5
(-2,-3)
Prelude> quotRem 13 (-5)
(-2,3)
Prelude> quotRem 5 13
(0,5)
Prelude> quotRem (-5) 13
(0,-5)
Prelude> quotRem 5 (-13)
(0,5)
Prelude> divMod 13 5
(2,3)
Prelude> divMod (-13) 5
(-3,2)
Prelude> divMod 13 (-5)
(-3,-2)
Prelude> divMod 5 13
(0,5)
Prelude> divMod (-5) 13
(-1,8)
Prelude> divMod 5 (-13)
(-1,-8)
```

Giving special attention to negative numbers, here are some observations about it:

`quotRem`

and`divMod`

behave the same, if all the arguments are positive.`quot`

returns`0`

, if the dividend is less than the divisor.`rem`

follows the sign of the dividend.`rem`

returns the dividend, if the dividend is less than the divisor.`div`

rounds off the divisor to the negative infinity, if either the dividend or divisor is negative.`mod`

follows the sign of the divisor.`div`

returns`0`

, if the dividend is less than the divisor, and both arguments are positive.`mod`

returns the dividend, if the dividend is less than the divisor, and both arguments are positive.`div`

returns`-1`

if the dividend is negative, and its absolute value is less than the divisor.`quot`

and`div`

returns`0`

if the dividend is`0`

, and the divisor is not zero.`mod`

returns the difference of the absolute values of the divisor and the dividend, following the sign of the divisor, if either the divisor or the dividend is negative.